Four of our partners have graduate studies in taxation, one of them teaches taxation at Universidad Metropolitana, and the partner that coordinates our tax practice, a former profesor of taxation at two of our most recognized universities (UCV and UCAB) was a member of the team appointed by the Venezuelan Ministry of Finance that negotiated with the U.S. Treasury Department the double taxation convention signed by both countries on January 25, 1999.

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We have worked with our international clients in complex corporate tax issues, such as the interpretation and application of international tax treaties, tax consequences of multiple exchange rates, export and currency exchange controls, foreign tax credits, pass-through entities, loss carryforwards, exemptions, tax deferrals, and sales of real estate, companies and business units.

We recurrently work with the financial officers of our clients in their ongoing income tax and VAT management and planning, their cross-border corporate structures, and their local and international revenue flows, considering national and local taxes and mandatory contributions.

We have worked with some of the finest tax specialists in Europe and the U.S. in estate planning, wealth preservation structures, and the choice of entity to own investment portfolios, active businesses, and real estate in other jurisdictions.

We have advised family offices, and private banking and wealth management officers of international financial institutions, in connection with the taxation, reporting obligations and inheritance tax returns of individuals resident in Venezuela.

We follow up on new rules, precedents, and initiatives taken by foreign governments and international institutions in matters relating to international payments, such as money laundering and reporting obligations applicable to financial institutions and other providers of services.

We have assisted U.S. law firms in investigations carried out in Venezuela in connection with the compliance of codes of corporate conduct and corporate compliance regulations.

We team up with full-time customs experts and customs agents in several Venezuelan cities, to solve problems that arise in connection with imports and exports of goods.

Under the current circumstances of the Venezuelan system of justice, tax litigation is seldom a reasonable option. We therefore concentrate our efforts in preventing tax objections, and we assist our clients in the course of tax audits in order to resolve tax disputes before commencing lengthy and costly procedures in tax courts.